Publication Ethics

Criteria for authorship

Authorship be based on the following 4 criteria: Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND Final approval of the version to be published; AND Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work he or she has done, an author should be able to identify which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. In addition, authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors.

All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. In addition, all individuals who meet the first criterion should have the opportunity to participate in the review, drafting, and final approval of the manuscript ( ).

Conflict-of-interest statement

Authors are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships that might bias their work. Financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony) are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal. To prevent ambiguity, authors must state explicitly in the letter accompanying the submitted manuscript whether potential conflicts do or do not exist.

Statement of informed consent

Analytical investigations on human participants must include a statement in the Methods section that participants gave their informed consent. It is journal policy that participant anonymity must be preserved in all cases. Research on experimental animals must be approved by an appropriate institutional ethics approval committee and the appropriate approval number must be stated in the Methods section.

Protection of human and animal rights 

For experimental, clinical, and drug researches an Ethics Committee report consistent with international agreements on human and animal rights (Helsinki Declaration of 1975, revised 2002 - and “Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals - and an informed consent of patients are required.


Authors must include a statement in the Methods section that identifies any funding sources for their work.

Risk assessment

Authors must include a statement in the Methods section of compliance to any risk assessment procedures required by their organizations.